| A Guide to Church Burials
|| Burial has been the most common way of disposing of corpses for centuries. Most early burials took place in the local graveyard, but from the 1850s municipal cemeteries were introduced to meet the demand for burial plots following a massive increase in the population.
The term 'graveyard' usually means the grounds of a church, whereas the term 'cemetery' means a place of burial not connected with a church, such as a local authority cemetery or private cemetery. Burials often occurred without a funeral, especially where children or poor people were concerned.
Burial records before 1538 are practically non existent. Manorial records may help where the deceased was a copyhold tenant, otherwise unless your ancestor was wealthy and owned a large estate, or left a Will, there is unlikely to be any record of the death.
From 1538, when parish records began, burial records were kept on pieces of paper with baptism records. When books were introduced in 1598 the burial records were often entered on the opposite page to baptisms, but in some parishes they were still mixed in amongst the baptism records. This makes them more difficult to read. You should always check every page.
The information recorded varies according to each parish. At first only the name of the person being buried and the date of burial was recorded. It wasn't until the 17th century that burial records relating to children mentioned the name of the parents, and then often only the name of the dead child's father. Later the mother's name was included, but age at death wasn't entered until the late 18th century, and in some parishes, not at all before 1813. Occasionally the date of death is recorded, but this is rare.
Before the 19th century child deaths accounted for almost half of all burials. Infant mortality (death before aged 1 year) was at least 100 times higher than today. Between 1700 and 1800, 5% of children died within the first few days of birth and 20% died before age 10. In some cities at the end of the 18th century half the children died before they were five years old; in London before they were three years old.
When a women suffered a miscarriage, (generally accepted as being before 24 weeks) the 'death' wasn't usually recorded. This is because most churches only recorded burials of children who had been baptised.
Infants often did not have their own grave. They were either wrapped in the same woollen cloth, or placed in the same coffin as an adult being buried at the same time. This kept the cost down for poor families. Although there was no individual grave, where the child had been baptised the burial was usually recorded.
This situation continued well into the mid 20th century. My mother recollects in the late 1920s that her aunt gave birth to two still-born sons. Her uncle bought them home from the hospital on the bus in a carrier bag and the local undertaker buried them in the coffin of an old lady who had died a few days earlier! The burials were not recorded.
Burials not recorded
Between the 1550s and the 1640s about a quarter of all burials were not recorded. This was often down to the forgetfulness of the parish priest, although the latter years were affected by the English civil war. Burials went unrecorded during epidemics such as smallpox and cholera. Hospitals often had their own burial grounds although the burials were usually recorded in the parish record. Workhouses sometimes recorded the death of inmates in their own records, and buried paupers in their own burial ground, but some sent the bodies to the local church to be buried. Again, it is important to check all available records.
Specific things to look out for in parish records
- Two children with the same first (or given) name, baptised to the same parents, usually means that the first child died.
- A gap of more than 2-4 years in the normal baptism cycle for a family usually means a stillbirth or miscarriage.
- Ages recorded at death should be treated as only a guide. Many illiterate people didn't know exactly when they were born, and after they were dead the record relied on information provided by relatives or friends.
- Widows were often recorded as 'wife of' even though the husband may have been dead for sometime.
- Names can vary; it was common for a person to be baptised with one spelling of their surname, married with another and buried under yet a third variation.
- Marriage certificates do not always show that the father of the bride or groom is dead. Do not presume that the father is still alive just because the certificate does not refer to him as 'deceased'.
Important point about the calendar
Up until 1752 in England, new years day was celebrated on 25th March not 1st January; eg. December 1750 would be followed in the parish records by January 1750. It is therefore easy to dismiss burial records listed in date order (eg. IGI or National Burial Index) because they seem to be at the wrong time.
An example of how this can lead to a burial being ignored would be where a child was baptised in December 1750, and buried in January 1750. On first viewing this burial would be dismissed as being 11 months before the child was born, when in fact it could be no more than a few weeks after the birth. (To find out more about how the calendar evolved see A Guide to the Calendar)
||Headstones in graveyards often provide a wealth of information. Stones from the 16th century or earlier are rare, but some dating back to the early 17th century are still legible. Headstones are one of the few sources before 1813 for the age of a person at death, although the information should always be treated with caution until verified by other evidence.
Traditionally, Christian graves lie east-west, with the person's head at the western end, in front of the headstone (a remnant of Pagan sun-worshipping days) but clergy were buried the other way around. Always check both sides.
Older stones may only show the deceased's initials and the year, but later stones usually contained much more information such as details of the husband, wife, and in many cases one or more of their children.
Poor families usually could not afford a headstone, and most graves only had wooden crosses. If your family were wealthy they may have a memorial tablet inside the church. These are usually in good condition and with some families can provided a potted history of the family through several generations.
Most old headstones have been removed from graveyards for safety reasons, as they become unstable after long periods in the ground. However, even where they are still in place the comparatively small number of gravestones in some churchyards can belie the number of bodies buried there. The churchyard of St Martin-in-the-Fields, London was only 200 feet (60 metres) square yet, in the early 1840's, was estimated to contain the remains of between sixty and seventy thousand people.
In 1813 George Rose's Act introduced a standard form on which burial records had to be entered. The Act introduced separate books to record burials; eight records to a page. It also specified that the following information must be recorded:
- the name of the deceased
- the deceased's address at the time of death
- the date of burial
- the age of the deceased.
Unfortunately the Act meant that those parishes that previously recorded more information (such as family information) now had nowhere to enter the information, and in that respect the new records were something of a backward step. However as most parishes only recorded very limited information (eg. William Woodward, buried this day 26 May 1797) the introduction has proved beneficial to most researchers.
Civil registration - 1837 onwards
Since 1 July 1837 all deaths in England and Wales must be registered in the same way as births and marriages. This is additional to the record of any funeral held in a Church. The new style death certificates contain the name, sex, age and occupation of the deceased, the cause of death, the name and address of the informant and the date of registration. The death must be registered within five days of the event.
Causes of death entered in the register are not always accurate or medically sound. Typical examples include statements such as 'old age' or 'heart failure'. Compulsory registration of stillbirths (defined as 'after 24 weeks') did not start until 1927, and before 1874 no certificate was required before a stillborn child was buried. If an inquest was held, such as with a suspicious death, a burial certificate was sometimes issued so that the body could be buried. The death certificate was then issued after the inquest.
Details of the informant can often help prove that the death is your relative. This is particularly useful when several persons of the same name (John Woodward etc.) died around the same time and you have no idea which one relates to your relative.
Cremation began in 1885 in Woking, Surrey, and since 1968 over half the people who have died have been cremated. Some ashes are buried in churchyards and the parish records will show the 'funeral'. In all cases however there will still be a death certificate which is the most important document for family history researchers.
Soldiers and sailors who died abroad were usually buried either in a mass grave near where they died or at sea, as appropriate; only very wealthy and high ranking servicemen were sent home to be buried (ie. Lord Nelson, preserved in a barrel of Brandy). The Commonwealth War Graves Commission holds records of all servicemen who died in the First and Second World Wars. The General Register Office has a register of army deaths from 1796 to 1987, navy deaths from 1837 and RAF deaths from 1920.
The Federation of Family History Societies has compiled a National Burial Index which covers the period 1538-2008, available on CD-Rom. The third edition, published in 2010, now contains over 18.5 million records. A link to their website is available on the left hand side of this page.
Main reference source: Family Tree Detective - Colin Rogers (ISBN 0-7190-5213-0). This is a "must read" book for all researchers.